By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with fundamental study and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got continuously came across the ecu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary advent, in the course of a survey path on international prehis tory, confirmed that (for me, at the very least) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named software kinds than any undergraduate should need to have in mind. i didn't be aware of a lot, yet I knew there have been greater issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any thought of pur suing examine on Stone Age Europe-that path was once adequate for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of innovative human adaptive switch. Iron ically, it all was once amenable to research utilizing exactly the related types and analytical instruments i finished up spending the higher a part of twenty years utilising within the nice Basin of western North the United States. again then, after all, few have been considering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, class, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled lower than I on the activity of getting to know those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages should be hooked up as a part of greater nearby subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Extra resources for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
34 CHAPTER 3 YEARS BP POLLEN ZONE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERIOD 6000 ------------ATLANTIC 7000 LATE MESOLITHIC 8000 BOREAL EARLY MESOLITHIC 9000 z w Z 0 II: => w C B [II A PREBOREAL -------- ---- (EARLIEST MESOLITHIC) 10000 YOUNGER DRYAS 11000 ALLEROD LATE PALAEOLITHIC Figure 2. Chronological chart of archaeological and palynological periods. During the peak of the last ice age, approximately 18,000 years ago, a significant portion of this area lay under glaciers. The Alpine ice sheet extended north well into Oberschwaben and smaller glaCiers covered peaks in the southern Black Forest.
Recent dissatisfaction with the unrealistic nature of these models has led to a reevaluation of these assumptions. Some of the most exciting research on hunter-gatherer behavior has focused on deviations from the conditions of these underlying premises and the implications of such deviations for ecological explanations of behavior. For example, strongly nonegalitarian groups have always been recognized, most notably along the northwest coast of North America, where individual differences in status are pronounced.
Moreover, they must be adapted to an archaeological record of hunter-gatherers that typically contains fragmentary and biased remains from long, undifferentiated temporal blocks distributed across a large region. l. INTRODUCTION The landscape history of southwestern Germany is one of the best studied in Europe. Early geomorphological work by Penck and Bruckner (1909) along the Riss , Wurm, and other small streams draining the Alps was seminal in the development of our understanding of glacial history, while pollen studies by Bertsch (196l) and Firbas (1949) in this area established the basic vegetational history for much of central Europe.
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim